Prospective Validation of a Genomic Assay in Breast Cancer: The 70-gene MammaPrint Assay and the MINDACT Trial
MammaPrint was the first genomic assay in breast cancer to be validated with a prospective randomized trial, the MINDACT trial. The 70 gene MammaPrint assay was developed to determine the risk of distant metastasis in early stage breast cancer through gene expression analysis and was the first FDA cleared genomic assay for breast cancer. The assay identifies primary breast cancers likely to metastasize within the first five years of diagnosis and has clinical utility for helping to determine the expected benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. The MINDACT Trial was the first trial of a genomic assay in breast cancer to provide prospective, randomized evidence of clinical utility for this important clinical question, identifying a significant proportion of patients who could safely forgo chemotherapy within a cohort of patients with high risk clinical characteristics. Nearly half of all patients (46%) who would have been advised chemotherapy according to clinical guidelines were identified genomically by MammaPrint as being low risk and found to have equivalent rates of freedom from metastasis at 5 years with or without chemotherapy. Based upon the MINDACT trial, the ASCO Biomarker Guidelines now approve the use of MammaPrint to inform decisions regarding chemotherapy for women with clinically high-risk ER+ breast cancer, and as the only approved assay for use in women with 1-3 involved lymph nodes. Recent studies suggest information obtained from the 70-gene assay may also help inform decisions regarding endocrine therapy, as well as chemotherapy, targeted therapy and immunotherapy.
Conclusion. The power of gene expression analysis in breast cancer, effectively illustrated with MammaPrint in the MINDACT trial, is now being explored through examination of the full transcriptome in breast cancer.
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