Evaluation of Physical Parameters of Novel Licorice Varnish Versus Fluoride and Combination Varnish: An In-Vitro Study
Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of locally prepared Licorice varnish (LV), commercially available Fluoride varnish (FV) and a Combination of both Varnishes (CV).
Material and Methods. LV was prepared using authenticated licorice roots. Commercially available FV (Bifluorid 12) was used as a positive control and CV was prepared in six different concentrations of both varnishes. Conventional antibacterial activity assessment, employing disc diffusion and broth dilution methods, was inconclusive. Therefore a novel assessment method was used, whereby the varnish was directly added to a mixture of Brain Heart Infusion broth with Streptococcus mutans and incubated. Physical parameters such as pH, rate of evaporation, viscosity, film forming ability, and cost incurred for preparation were assessed and compared.
Results. FV, LV and CV (except the combination of LV 80% + FV 20%) showed antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans. All three varnishes formed films on the tooth surface as confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Mean pH was in the range of 4-4.5, viscosity 48-52 centipoise (cP), rate of evaporation was 150-160 seconds. They were comparable to each other in the physical parameters tested, except for the shelf life of LV.
Conclusion. All three varnishes showed antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans which was established using an innovative method of antibacterial activity assessment. LV was most economical of all but had a shorter shelf life. The results of this study need to be evaluated through an in vivo study.
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