Intra-renal Arteries in Nephrectomy from a Historical Aspect,. a Quest Originated by Medical Illustrations to Reach Modern Angiography

Vassiliki Kyriakou, Georgia Chondrou, Panagiotis Georgakopoulos, Evaggelos Mavrommatis


The aim of the present paper is to contribute to the understanding of the history of the anatomical study of the intra-renal arteries. The vasculature and especially the intra-renal arteries of the kidneys are an intriguing field which was first studied through art and then perfected by medicine. Angiography and microsurgery have resulted in partial nephrectomy techniques for surviving kidneys with adequate functional results. Graves’ categorization dating from 1954 opened the way for innovative approaches that have resulted in modern topographical anatomy. Conclusion: Our understanding of the anatomy of intra-renal arteries has played a significant role in surgical anatomy and internal medicine.


Graves’ Categorization; Kidneys; Intra-renal Arteries; Nephrectomy; Angiography

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