Testicular Germ Cell Tumors: Serological and Immunohistochemical Diagnosis
Keywords:Testicular Tumors, Germ Cell Tumors, Serologic Diagnosis, Immunohistochemistry, Tumor Markers
This review deals with serologic and immunohistochemical tumor markers used in clinical laboratories for the diagnosis of testicular germ cell tumors. Time tested serologic markers such as alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and lactate dehydrogenase are routinely used in the work-up of patients with testicular tumors. Professional organizations regulating the practice of medicine in most countries worldwide require that the laboratory values for these serologic reactants be included in the pathology reports on testicular tumors as part of the tumor staging process. Immunohistochemical markers of testicular germ have been identified and widely tested during the first two decades of the XXI century. We have selected the most useful immunohistochemical markers from a few of these markers and discussed them in this review.
Conclusion. Published data show that testicular tumor markers are widely used in routine practice. The study of tumor markers has improved the pathologic and clinical diagnosis of testicular germ cell tumors and has thus contributed to their treatment.